types / typology


types / typology
A recognition that in the Bible there is discernible a pattern of salvation events. Some of what happened in the OT is seen to be anticipations of events recorded in the NT, and some of the narratives in the gospels seem to be reflected in the Acts. The anticipations are called ‘types’ and the fulfilments are the ‘antitypes’. Thus the story of the Exodus [[➝ Exodus, the]] is repeated in the synoptic gospels; the Israelites cross the Red Sea, yield to temptations of doubt and disillusionment for forty years in the wilderness, and then Moses on Mount Sinai presents the people with the Law. In the gospels Jesus is baptized [[➝ baptism]] in the water by John [[➝ John the Baptist]], is tempted for forty days in the wilderness, and then gives the Sermon on the Mount (Matt. 5–7). The difference is that where Israel failed, by repeatedly grumbling and doubting God's determination, Jesus succeeded. The gospels are, as it were, retelling the story of Israel, but giving the events of Jesus as its climax and rationale. It could be shown that Matt.'s account of Jesus recapitulates that of Israel with Gen. (Matt. 1:1), Exodus (2:15), Deut. (5–7); a ministry about kingship and prophecy; an exile (Calvary) and restoration (the Resurrection). The principle behind such exegesis is that God had the same purpose in the NT as he always had (cf. Heb. 13:8). He is consistent. Though his plan failed because of Israel's weakness, he did not change his plan but brought it to completion through Jesus.
It is possible that there is a typological parallelism between the Passion narrative in Luke and the later chapters of Acts. In the gospel, the Lord's Supper and teaching about ministry is followed by four trials (before the high priest, the Sanhedrin, Pilate [[➝ Pilate, Pontius]], and Herod); the crucifixion; three days in the grave; the resurrection. In the Acts, there is a meal at Troas (Acts 20:7), a discourse about ministry (20:28 ff.); four trials, before the Sanhedrin, Felix, Festus, and Herod Agrippa Ⅱ; the shipwreck, followed by three months with Publius. And the climax of the book is Paul's arrival in Rome.
If such a theory is plausible, the purpose of the literary device is to show how the disciple must be as his master; that if the way of Jesus was in humiliation, there can be no other way for the Church (Luke 9:23).
The story of the Flood [[➝ flood]] and Noah's ark is treated typologically by 1 Pet. 19–21.

Dictionary of the Bible.

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  • Types in Scripture — • Offers several definitions Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Types in Scripture     Types in Scripture     † …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Typology — is the study of types. More specifically, it may refer to:*Typology (anthropology), division of culture by races *Typology (archaeology), classification of things according to their characteristics *Typology (theology), in Christian theology the… …   Wikipedia

  • Typology — Ty*pol o*gy, n. [Type + logy.] 1. (Theol.) A discourse or treatise on types. [1913 Webster] 2. (Theol.) The doctrine of types. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • typology — [tī päl′ə jē] n. [ TYPO + LOGY] 1. the study of types, symbols, or symbolism 2. symbolic meaning or representation; symbolism typological [tī΄pə läj′i kəl] adj …   English World dictionary

  • Typology (theology) — For other types of typology, see Typology (disambiguation). The Ascension from a Speculum Humanae Salvationis ca. 1430, see below. Typology (Greek tupos, a.k.a. figura in Latin) in Christian theology and Biblical exegesis is a doctrine or theory… …   Wikipedia

  • Typology (archaeology) — In archaeology a typology is the result of the classification of things according to their characteristics. The products of the classification, i.e. the classes are also called types. Most archaeological typologies organize artifacts into types,… …   Wikipedia

  • typology — typological /tuy peuh loj i keuhl/, typologic, adj. typologically, adv. typologist, n. /tuy pol euh jee/, n. 1. the doctrine or study of types or prefigurative symbols, esp. in scriptural literature. 2. a systematic classification or study of… …   Universalium

  • typology —    Not to be confused with typography, typology is the study or systematic ordering or classification of types as in kinds, not the types involving letter forms that have characteristics or traits in common. This is necessarily an interest of art …   Glossary of Art Terms

  • typology — /taɪˈpɒlədʒi/ (say tuy poluhjee) noun (plural typologies) 1. the doctrine or study of types or symbols, especially those of Scripture. 2. the study of types and classes, especially as in systematic classification. 3. Archaeology the study of the… …   Australian English dictionary

  • typology — [[t]taɪpɒ̱ləʤi[/t]] typologies N COUNT A typology is a system for dividing things into different types, especially in science and the social sciences. [FORMAL] …   English dictionary


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